First we will start with a basic question that is What is/are programming languages? So ans to this is, “A programming language is set of instructions written in a particular format that produces an output”. With the recent advancements we have many programming languages available to us. But each one of them serve a different purpose. Most common programming languages are C, C++, Java, Python, Ruby, Perl, Rust, etc. Each of these languages has its own characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and applications. In this post we will talk about different types programming languages available and their functions and applications. So let’s start with the types of programming languages.
1. Procedural programming languages-
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm derived from imperative programming. It uses a set of commands or statements to perform a procedure. This paradigm uses top-down approach. Procedural programming languages divide a program into variables, functions and sub-routines. It’s examples are:
FORTRAN, Pascal, BASIC, C, COBOL.
Features of Procedural Programming Language:
1. It has predefined functions. A predefined function is typical of an instruction known by name.
2. It has local variables. We can define variables in the main structure of a method. And it’s scope is limited to that structure.
3. It has global variables. We can declare variables outside functions and also use them where ever in the program.
4. It supports modularity. Modularity means when two different system have two different tasks to perform but they group together to conclude the larger task first.
5. It allows parameter passing. It is a mechanism to pass parameters to functions, subroutines or procedures.
1. This type of language best suits for general-purpose programming.
2. The code is very easy to compile and interpret.
3. We can reuse the code in other functions without rewriting or copying it.
4. In this programming technique memory requirement decreases.
5. It is easy to track program flow.
1. The code is hard to write.
2. These languages are difficult to relate with real-world objects.
3. Importance is given to the steps rather than data.
4. Entire program has access to data. This means it is less secure.
Scientific, mathematical, statistical, and engineering type procedures, scientific data analysis, transaction processing jobs.
2. Object Oriented programming languages-
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of objects. It stores data in the form of methods. And OOP supports data encapsulation, inheritance, abstraction, polymorphism and code reusability. Due to modularity and scalarity, OOP offers ease of management. It’s examples are:
Java, Python, C++, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby, Scala, PHP, Kotlin, Swift, etc.
Features of Object Oriented Programming Language:
1. Emphasis is on data rather than procedure.
2. Programs are divided into number of objects.
3. Data structure characterize the objects.
4. External functions cannot access data i.e. data is hidden.
5. Objects can communicate with each other through functions.
1. It gives a clear modular structure for programs.
2. It allows us to use abstract data types.
3. It is easy to maintain and modify code as we can create new object with small difference to the existing code.
4. We can create real life applications using this type of language.
5. It supports concepts of polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction, etc.
1. Programs made using this paradigm are large.
2. It uses high amount of memory.
Also Check : How is C++ different from C?
UI design like windows, android and MacOS development, real time systems, simulation and modelling, neural networks and parallel programming.
3. Functional programming languages-
Functional programming is a programming paradigm derived from declarative programming. It works by composing function definitions. They use functions as values and pass them as parameters. This makes the code more readable and easily understandable. Functional programming languages are designed using the concept of mathematical functions. They use conditional statements and recursion to perform computation. They also support features like higher-order functions and lazy evaluation. It’s examples are:
Haskell, SML, Clojure, Scala, Erlang, Clean, F#, etc.
Features of Functional Programming Languages:
1. These are designed on the concept of mathematical functions that uses conditional expressions and recursion to perform computation.
2. Functional programming supports higher-order functions and lazy evaluation features.
3. These languages do not support flow controls like If-Else and Switch Statements. They directly use the functions and functional calls.
4. Like OOP, it support popular concepts such as Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism.
1. Bugs-Free Code : Pure functions take argument once and produce unchangeable output. They use immutable values, making debugging and testing easier. Functional programming does not support state, so there are no side-effect results and we can write error-free codes.
2. Efficient Parallel Programming : One can program functions to work parallel as instructions.
3. Efficiency : Functional programs consists of independent units that can run concurrently.
4. Lazy Evaluation : The value is evaluated and stored when it is required.
5. Enhances the Comprehension and readability : It’s style treats functions as values and passes the same to other functions as parameters.
1. Immutable values combined with recursion might lead to a reduction in performances.
2. In some cases, writing pure functions causes a reduction in the readability of the code.
3. Though writing pure functions is easy, combining the same with the rest of the application as well as the I/O operations is tough.
4. Writing programs in recursive style in place of using loops for the same can be a daunting task.
Machine learning, quantitative finance programming, logic and data analysis, fast prototyping.
4. Logical programming languages-
Logic programming is a programming paradigm based on formal logic. It is derived from declarative programming. Logic programming languages use a set of logical instructions that specify rules or facts about a problem. So they are ideal to solve complex problems or algorithms. They are also called as high level languages as they implement computation’s logic. It’s examples are:
Prolog, ASP, Datalog, etc.
Features of Logical Programming Languages:
1. A logical programming language only focuses on what a program computes and not how.
2. Desired results are expressed as predicates or relations instead of functions.
1. Logical languages are quite reliable.
2. As it uses true/false statements, we can create programs quickly.
3. It allows to express knowledge in a way that does not depend on the implementation, making programs more flexible and understandable.
4. It can be used in non-computational disciplines relying on reasoning and precise means of expression.
5. Best suited for problems in which knowledge base can be established to come to a solution.
1. It can solve very less number of problems efficiently.
2. The program execution can be slow.
3. There is no suitable method of representing computational concepts.
Database queries, inductive analysis, artificial intelligence, web development.
5. Scripting programming languages-
Scripting languages are a language where instructions are written for a run time environment. They are interpreted rather than compiled. It is a series of commands within a file which are executed without being compiled. They are designed for communicating with other programming languages. They mostly run inside a parent program as scripts. Mostly they are used for adding visualization interfaces and combinations in web pages. There are 2 types of scripting languages: server side and client side. Server side scripting focuses on data storage, access and resolving errors. While client side focuses on designing user interface and easier functioning. It’s examples are:
Features of Scripting Programming Languages:
1. Both batch and interactive use.
2. Economy of expression.
3. Lack of declarations.
4. Flexible dynamic typing.
5. Easy access to system facilities.
6. Sophisticated pattern-matching and string manipulation.
7. High-level data types.
Web development, artificial intelligence, game development, multimedia.
We hope now you know how many types of programming languages exist. If yes then do tell us in the comment section below. Also share it with your friends. And for more such content keep visiting. Do follow us on Instagram for daily updates.